The number of people with diabetes continues to grow. In 2014, according to the WHO, diabetes affected 422 million people worldwide compared to 108 in 1980.
During this period, the prevalence of diabetes among adults over 18 almost doubled, from 4.7% to 8.5%. And WHO’s prospects for 2030 are not encouraging in the face of increasingly sedentary lifestyle changes and unhealthy diets.
What is Diabetes? Explained
France is not immune to this epidemic, which has progressed faster than expected. Especially among men, young people and the elderly. It is now considered a public health priority.
Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the two main forms of this pathology. It follows an abnormal production.
Use and storage of sugars brought by the diet and results in an abnormal concentration of sugar in the blood. Causing chronic hyperglycemia. A healthy body automatically regulates this blood sugar level.
What is type 1 diabetes?
The diabetes type 1 – or insulin-dependent diabetes – most often affects children, adolescents or young adults. Type 1 occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough or, at all, insulin.
This anomaly is linked to abnormal functioning of the immune system. That destroys the pancreatic cells responsible for producing the hormone. To compensate, it must be administered “artificially” daily. By subcutaneous injection of insulin (via a syringe, a pen or a pump). This is an insulin treatment.
What is type 2 diabetes?
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These people can thus face insulin resistance. Insulin is poorly used by the cells of the body, resulting in repeated hyperglycemia. Insulin pump type 2 diabetes treatment and medical monitoring limit the sometimes serious consequences of the disease.
The symptoms of diabetes
We sometimes talk about diabetes as a silent disease
Indeed, diabetes can be asymptomatic for years before the diagnosis is made.
Its recognized symptoms are nonetheless multiple and their occurrence must alert to the potential presence of diabetes.
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Symptoms of type 1 diabetes
Abundant and frequent urines, abnormal thirst, loss of weight despite steady appetite. Fatigue, blurred vision, abdominal pain, infections are the main symptoms of type 1 diabetes.
A bioassay also reveals fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels. In the presence of some of these symptoms, whose onset may be sudden and rapid, screening is recommended.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes
Like type 1 and type 2 diabetes can be discovered incidentally. During an analysis or because of a related health problem (visual disturbances, muscular pains, impotence, cardiovascular pathology, coma, etc.).
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The symptoms of type 2 resemble – albeit less intense. Those of type 1 diabetes: fatigue, more frequent urination. Increased thirst and hunger, itching of the genitals, slow healing, dryness of the eyes. More frequent infections (urinary infections, mycoses, furunculosis …
Causes and risk factors
It is not yet known why the pancreatic cells that produce insulin are destroyed. And consequently, lead to the appearance of more or less medium term diabetes. Many assumptions are made and certain diabetes risk factors, however, are clearly identified.
Diabetes in adults
The adult is usually affected by type 2 diabetes. There is no single reason for this diabetes, but a concomitant of causes and risk factors. Foremost among them is an unbalanced diet coupled with a sedentary lifestyle or low physical activity.
The duo then promotes overweight or even obesity, present in 60 to 90% of type 2 diabetics. To these environmental factors are added hereditary factors (family history can increase the probability of developing diabetes). And genetic (some populations are more affected than others). Pregnancy and the birth of babies over 4 kgs also require increased surveillance.
Diabetes in children and adolescents
The specific causes of type 1 diabetes, which specifically affects children and adolescents, are not more precisely established. If a genetic predisposition related to certain genes of the HLA system located on chromosome 6 has been highlighted.
In 9 out of 10 cases, however, there is no family history. Other factors, environmental, are invoked by epidemiologists: viral infections. Early introduction of cow’s milk, stress, toxins, vitamin D deficiency in the infant.
The age of the mother during pregnancy … However, it was noted that Type 1 diabetes often appeared a few days after viral infection. Severe stress or emotional shock.
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