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To produce well-composed, flicker-free slow-motion videos, you’ll need the appropriate sort of lighting. This is an important consideration when making correctly exposed, flicker-free slow-motion videos.

The ability to create realistic videos demands good video editing software and adequate lighting. Even though we do not see real things in slow motion, we still have a visual sense of how slow motion may enhance the feeling of reality in what we are viewing.

If you want to provide the highest quality slow-motion video, you’ll need the appropriate lighting equipment. We’ll look at what light technology is best for slow motion and why it’s important in this section.


If you’re recording a slow-motion video, there are a few key factors to consider: Frame rates Shutter speed Lighting

You won’t be able to create an impactful and flowing slow motion if you don’t have control over all the variables. This fluidity is essential because without it, your slow-motion video will appear jerky and unprofessional.

Read more: speed up or slow down any video!

If you just slow down a 25fps recording without addressing the frame rate, there will be no seamless transition between frames. Therefore, you’ll need to film at a greater frame rate (for example, 150 fps) and then play it back at a slower speed (in this situation, 25 FPS). You should think about both factors.

This is determined by the look you want to portray. For example, 60 frames per second may be appropriate for obtaining a slow-motion effect, but in certain cases, you may need a higher frame rate. The addition of extra frames in the lower frame rate for viewing provides for a fluid motion.

Another crucial element is the shutter speed. The amount of blurring can be controlled by varying the duration of exposure. The more time the shutter is open, the blurrier the movement becomes.

The usual guideline is to use a shutter speed twice the frame rate for a natural-looking amount of motion blur. A too-high shutter speed, on the other hand, will make your slow-motion video appear jagged. As a result, you should also think about how much movement there will be in your subject when shooting it at such a high speed.

Using faster shutter speeds and frame rates also implies that your camera will have less time to gather light for each shot you take. As a result, if you want to expose your photographs perfectly, you’ll need more powerful sources of illumination. You won’t get good slow-motion footage unless there is the correct quantity of light.

This is why light is so important when filming in slow motion.


The flicker in tungsten lighting sources is caused by the frequency of the main supply’s alternating current. The main supply frequency in the UK is 50Hz, whereas it is 60Hz in the United States. The number of complete AC sine waves per second is known as hertz (Hz).

The HMI source’s frequency is derived from the supply ballast, which is usually set at 50Hz, 60Hz, or “flicker-free” (usually 100Hz) in speciality ballasts such as those supplied with our ARRI M Series fixtures. For ultra-slow-motion pictures captured with our Vision Research Phantom VEO4K @ 1000fps in 4K, a special (but loud!) 1000Hz frequency can be selected.

Some light sources, such as LEDs, do not give off a constant luminous flux but instead have an intensity that varies with the supply’s voltage. PER second, when mains voltage reverses polarity, light intensity pulses in time with this mains frequency.

When filming lightning, you’re shooting with certain frame rates that, when mismatched to the lighting frequency, cause the picture to flicker or roll. In this manner, the camera’s sensor’s frame rate works in a similar way to that of the AC mains supply’s frequency. 25p (25 frames per second) has a frequency of 25Hz. When using a 1/50th or 180-degree shutter on a 25p sensor, the frequency is now 50Hz rather than 25Hz.

When comparing the two, it’s important to keep in mind that, unlike slow-motion video, high-speed photography does not record actual events in real-time. High-speed filming isn’t live action; rather, it is a type of animation with higher frame rates and more depth. In general, if the frame rate matches the whole number multiples of the lighting frequency, no flicker should be visible. However, when the frame rate differs from the frequency for example as shooting 25p in America where the mains supply is 60Hz causes flicker. When shooting at 1000fps, a lighting source of 50Hz is far too slow to keep up with the frame rate, therefore again at these insanely high frame rates you can see 50Hz flicker.

To address the issue, change the frame rate, shutter speed, or lighting frequency to match. The type of light source is crucial in keeping flicker levels low. For slow-motion filming, the greater the frequency, the better.


You won’t have to worry about flicker if you’re shooting outdoors with the sun and reflectors as your light sources. But, as previously said, most electrically generated light sources will flicker in some manner. The degree of flicker that is seen by the viewer can be controlled by manipulating the perception of the flickering for them.

Flicker can be caused by a variety of different factors. When capturing at a standard, 25fps frame rate, for example, you may use a tungsten lamp or even a residential fluorescent light and not have flicker issues. Flicker is considerably more likely to occur when the frame rate and shutter speed are modified. Different sorts of lighting have varying flicker rates:


Fluorescent lighting may be used alongside HID lamps. While these bulbs are well suited for use in homes and buildings with electrical systems that cannot support high-frequency ballasts (such as incandescent lights), they do require a flicker-free electronic ballast to operate effectively. HMI is an acronym for hydrargyrum medium-arc iodide. Instead of using an incandescent bulb, these lamps employ an arc lamp.

The electronic ballast is a device that generates an ignition pulse and regulates the arc. This transforms the sine wave into a square wave, allowing the light to remain constant for longer after zero-crossing (the instant when there is no voltage).

A low-frequency HMI lamp will have a frequency of 75 to 100 Hz, with the gap between electrodes growing over time and the arc extinguishing for longer periods during zero-crossing. This can raise the flicker factor above 3%, which means that you should replace the bulb.


LEDs are susceptible to flicker, particularly if you dim them. LEDs are also prone to flicker because they react quickly to voltage fluctuations. To overcome this, high-quality LED lighting fixtures regulate the frequency of each individual LED on the panel, providing better light (as well as price!).

Because of this mechanism, most LED fixtures are now limited to much higher frequencies than we can capture with specialized cameras. The new huge dot LED technology is capable of operating at more than 10,000Hz! This makes them an excellent match for high-frame-rate filming.


Tungsten lamps require AC mains power to generate their frequency radiation. If you dim tungsten lights, you are changing the amount of current they receive and will therefore impact the frequency and flicker.


Fluorescent bulbs can be used with either electronic or magnetic ballasts. Flicker is reduced, but because both fluorescent lamps and energy-saving bulbs have higher flicker factors than other lighting methods, it may not be eliminated. Magnetic ballasts (such as those utilized in building strip lights) cause flicker in fluorescent lamps with a flicker factor of between 30% and 60%. You can reduce the flicker of electronic ballasts to 0 per cent (as seen in Kino Flo Divas / 4x4s etc), down to 10%, or even eliminate it altogether (with a Kino having a 0% flicker factor).

When you’re utilizing flicker-free light sources, as with most of the other formats, you’ll need to compensate for the wild flicker produced by magnetic ballasts by changing the frame rate and/or shutter angle.


Arc wander can occur in LED lights as well, and it’s caused by a plasmatic hot spot that moves within the bulb.

This can produce a glistening effect with a rapid colour shift as a result. As a consequence, you won’t be able to guarantee flicker-free lighting using HMI lamps with standard electronic ballast. One way to solve the problem is by utilizing high-frequency ballasts for HMI lamps. These can significantly reduce or even eliminate flickering.

The popularity of these high-speed ballasts, which operate between 300Hz and 1000Hz, has enabled filmmakers to create flicker-free images of excellent quality at frame rates as high as 1000fps. If you’re looking for flicker-free lighting, why not visit Pro Motion Hire?

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5 ways that PopAI helps impress your boss?



5 ways that PopAI helps impress your boss?

Impressing your boss with your work is a difficult task to do. You may be a hard or smart worker, but a boss can find flaws in you. Yes, it can be stressful sometimes because you give 100% to the work.

Especially in presentation tasks, your boss may need more creativity.

But I have a solution for you! You don’t need to spend hours making large presentations.


You can do this with the help of PopAI, And I will explain in detail how PopAI helps impress your boss and excel in your workspace. Here are 5 ways that PopAI can set you apart from others.

1. Increase in efficiency and productivity

One of the primary benefits of using this AI is that it increases the efficiency and productivity of employees. With the help of this tool, employees work faster with great results. It allows you more time to focus on strategic decisions and creativity, rather than doing repetitive tasks.

It can handle appointment scheduling, generate reports, and e-mail filtering. With this facility, your creativity and time on the strategic part will be noticed by your boss and he will be impressed by your enhancement in productivity.

2. Data-Driven decision making

AI tool is best at transforming complex data into meaningful data that is easy to understand in the form of graphics, charts, etc. Problems can be identified very fast through insights, whereas it is quite difficult to achieve this through manual analysis. So just imagine, providing data-driven analysis to your boss and giving solutions to the same will do wonders for your reputation in front of your boss.

3. Improved customer service

It facilitates improving customer service. With AI-driven chatbots, it can help you provide prompt and reliable responses to customers. These tools can operate 24/7, which means it is available after business hours. With this approach, customer satisfaction will be increased and following this business will also get a good name in the market.

4. Helps in making business presentations

Time is limited, but work in the company sometimes gives stress to the employees, especially when the boss gives a task of making a presentation at short notice. It will be more difficult when you are not good at colour combination and creating graphics.

So here It comes into the picture, with its Ai for presentation tool, you can make as many presentations as you want in minutes. You just have to enter a topic, select the audience tone, and select the pages and language. With its AI-driven tool, it will suggest colour combinations, and layouts and make your presentation engaging through wonderful visuals in the form of charts and graphs.

5. Collaboration and communication

This AI tool has a wonderful feature that organizes tasks, sets deadlines, and monitors progress. It becomes very handy during office meetings, when you can communicate with your team, that this particular project needs data. With this, the performance can also be tracked and what needs to be done.

Effective communication leads to better results and it can give you value in the company and helps you in gaining skills related to leadership and team player skills. There is a high possibility that with this effective approach, you will achieve positive results for your company.


Having PopAi is like an asset not only does it contribute to individual growth but also it gives wings to the overall success of the company. It possesses a multi-tasking feature that not only fastens the work but also gives you more creative options in using this wonderful tool.

So as a professional, if you want to win the competition, then you need to adopt this kind of tool which increases your productivity as well as improves your leadership skills.

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BLDC Motor Controller Design Principles



BLDC Motor Controller Design Principles

BLDC (Brushless DC) motors are widely used in various applications, from consumer electronics and appliances to automotive and industrial systems. To control the speed and direction of BLDC motors, specialized motor controllers are required. At Integra Sources, we specialize in designing custom BLDC motor controllers that meet the unique requirements of our clients’ applications.

What Is a BLDC Motor Controller?

A BLDC motor controller is an electronic device that controls the speed, direction, and torque of a BLDC motor. It consists of a microcontroller or digital signal processor (DSP) that generates the control signals for the motor’s power electronics, including the power transistors or MOSFETs. The BLDC motor controller also includes feedback sensors, such as Hall effect sensors or encoders, to provide feedback on the motor’s speed and position.

Key Design Principles of BLDC Motor Controllers

  1. Sensorless vs. Sensored Control: BLDC motor controllers can be classified into two main types: sensorless and sensored control. Sensorless control relies on the back electromotive force (EMF) of the motor to determine its speed and position, while sensored control uses external sensors, such as Hall effect sensors or encoders, to provide feedback. The choice between sensorless and sensored control depends on factors such as cost, complexity, and performance requirements.
  2. Commutation Techniques: BLDC motors require electronic commutation to control the timing of the motor’s winding currents. There are several commutation techniques used in BLDC motor controllers, including trapezoidal (six-step) commutation and sinusoidal (vector) commutation. Trapezoidal commutation is simpler and more cost-effective but may result in lower efficiency and torque ripple. Sinusoidal commutation provides smoother and more efficient motor operation but requires more complex control algorithms and hardware.
  3. Control Algorithms: The control algorithm used in a BLDC motor controller determines how the motor’s speed and torque are regulated. Common control algorithms include open-loop control, closed-loop speed control, and closed-loop position control. Open-loop control provides basic speed regulation but does not account for variations in load or motor parameters. Closed-loop control algorithms use feedback from sensors to adjust the motor’s speed and position in real time, providing precise control over the motor’s operation.
  4. PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) Techniques: PWM is used to control the average voltage applied to the motor windings, thereby controlling bldc motors. There are several PWM techniques used in BLDC motor controllers, including six-step commutation PWM, sinusoidal PWM, and space vector modulation (SVM). These techniques vary in complexity and efficiency, with space vector modulation offering the highest level of control and efficiency.
  5. Overcurrent and Overtemperature Protection: BLDC motor controllers must include protection features to prevent damage to the motor and controller in the event of faults or overloads. Overcurrent protection limits the motor’s current to prevent overheating and damage to the motor windings. Overtemperature protection monitors the temperature of the motor and controller and reduces the motor’s power if it exceeds a safe threshold.

Integra Sources’ BLDC Motor Controller Design Services

At Integra Sources, we offer comprehensive BLDC motor controller design services to help businesses create custom motor control solutions for their applications. Our services include:

  1. Requirements Analysis: We work closely with our clients to understand their specific requirements and develop a detailed specification for the BLDC motor controller.
  2. Hardware Design: Our experienced hardware engineers design the circuitry and PCB layout for the BLDC motor controller, ensuring optimal performance and reliability.
  3. Firmware Development: Our software engineers develop the control algorithms and firmware for the BLDC motor controller, including PWM control, commutation algorithms, and protection features.
  4. Testing and Validation: We provide rigorous testing and validation services to ensure that the BLDC motor controller meets our clients’ performance and reliability requirements.
  5. Certification Support: We assist our clients with obtaining the necessary certifications for their BLDC motor controller, including CE, UL, and RoHS compliance.


BLDC motor controllers play a critical role in controlling the speed, direction, and torque of BLDC motors in a wide range of applications. At Integra Sources, we specialize in designing custom BLDC motor controllers that meet the unique requirements of our clients’ applications. Contact us today to learn more about our BLDC motor controller design services and how we can help you bring your motor control project to life.

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Understanding Solar Energy and Photovoltaics: A Simple Guide



Understanding Solar Energy and Photovoltaics

“Have you ever wondered about the power of the sun? The sun gives us light and warmth every day. This energy from the sun is called solar energy. It’s a big part of our lives, even though we might not think about it much. Solar energy is not just about staying warm or seeing during the day. It can also be turned into electricity to power things in our homes and schools. This is where photovoltaics come in. Photovoltaics is a fancy word, but it simply means making electricity from sunlight. It’s a smart way to use the sun’s energy. In this guide, we’ll explore how solar energy and photovoltaics work, and why they’re so important for our planet and future. Let’s start this exciting journey into the world of solar energy!”

What is Solar Energy?

Solar energy is like a gift from the sun. When the sun shines, it sends light and heat to Earth. This light and heat is what we call solar energy. It’s very powerful and has been around since the beginning of time. Interestingly, solar energy is behind many things we see and do. For example, it helps plants grow, and we feel its warmth on a sunny day.

Moreover, solar energy is not just for plants and warmth. It can do more. It can be used to make electricity, heat water, and even power cars. Solar energy is everywhere around us. Think about a sunny day at the beach or in a park. The warmth you feel and the bright light that helps you see are all solar energy.

Solar energy is special because it’s always there and never runs out. It’s a clean and safe way to make power, unlike some other types that can harm our planet. As we learn more about solar energy, we discover how amazing it is for our world.”

Discovering Photovoltaics

Photovoltaics might sound complicated, but it’s actually a simple idea. It’s all about turning sunlight into electricity. We do this using solar panels. These panels are usually seen on rooftops or in big fields. They are made of special materials that capture sunlight. When sunlight hits these solar panels, something amazing happens. The light gets turned into electricity. This electricity can then power our homes, schools, and even gadgets. It’s like magic, but it’s really science!

Moreover, photovoltaics is a great way to make clean energy. It doesn’t create smoke or harmful gases. This is really good for our planet. Using solar panels helps us keep the air clean and protect nature. Solar panels are becoming more popular. They show us a new way to make electricity without hurting the environment. As we learn more about photovoltaics, we find out how it can help us live in a cleaner, brighter world.

Benefits of Solar Energy and Photovoltaics

Solar energy is like a superhero of the energy world. First of all, it’s renewable, which means it never runs out. The sun will keep shining, giving us energy every day. This is different from other types of energy that can finish, like oil or coal. Also, solar energy is super clean. It doesn’t make the air dirty or harm the environment. When we use solar panels to make electricity, we don’t create any smoke or bad gases. This is really important because it helps keep our planet healthy.

Another cool thing about solar energy is that it can save people money. After the cost of setting up solar panels, the energy from the sun is free. This means lower electricity bills, which is great for everyone. Using solar energy and photovoltaics is a smart choice. It’s good for the Earth and can help us in many ways. As we use more solar energy, we take steps towards a cleaner and happier world.

Solar Energy in Action

Solar energy is not just something we talk about, it’s being used all around us. For example, some houses have solar panels on their roofs. These panels capture sunlight and turn it into electricity for everything in the house. Also, some schools use solar energy to power lights and computers. Moreover, solar energy isn’t only for buildings. It can be used in farming too. Farmers use solar panels to run machines and water plants. This helps them grow food without using so much electricity from other sources.

Another great thing is that people can get help to install solar panels. There are special programs and incentives, especially for places like farms and labs, to make solar energy more affordable. Solar energy is becoming a big part of our lives. Every solar panel set up is a step towards a cleaner world. It’s exciting to see how solar energy is used in different ways and helps us all.

The Future of Solar Energy

The future of solar energy looks really bright, just like the sun! More and more people around the world are starting to use solar panels. This is great news because it means cleaner energy for everyone. One exciting part is that scientists are always finding new ways to make solar panels even better. They are working on making them more powerful and easier to use. This means that in the future, solar energy could be used even more than it is now.

Also, as young people learn about solar energy, they can think of new ideas to use it. Maybe one day, you could come up with a new way to use solar energy! So, the future with solar energy is full of possibilities. It’s an adventure that we are all a part of. Every step we take toward using more solar energy is a step toward a cleaner, safer planet for us all.


To wrap up, solar energy and photovoltaics are really important for our planet. We’ve learned that solar energy comes from the sun and is a clean, endless power source. Photovoltaics is a smart way to turn sunlight into electricity. This helps us in many ways, like keeping the air clean and saving money.

Remember, solar energy is not just about today, it’s about our future too. Every time we use solar panels, we’re helping our planet. It’s up to all of us, especially young people, to keep learning and thinking of new ways to use this amazing energy. So, let’s keep exploring and using solar energy. It’s a bright path towards a better world for everyone. The more we use the sun’s power, the happier our Earth will be!

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