What is important when applying for a doctorate depends heavily on the type of doctoral position. In any case, you should know the basic standards.
The way to a doctorate can be quite different:
- Classic individual doctorate, possibly even at the faculty where you have already completed your studies. Or another university or research institute.
- Structured doctorate at a graduate college or graduate school or via a doctoral course
- PhD positions in the private sector
The requirements for applying for a doctorate are as diverse as the possibilities. In the most convenient case, you know the doctoral supervisor from your studies, have already written your thesis with him/her, your doctorate is only the next logical step and the application is a mere formality. But even with an individual doctorate, this is by no means always the case. In the case of doctoral programs at universities, on the other hand, there are usually standardized application procedures.
Given this variety, it is therefore difficult to give specific, general information for a promising application. Basically, however:
- Submit complete application documents.
- Make sure your cover letter is error-free.
Sounds obvious, but it isn’t. Incomplete documents are a common reason for applications being sorted out straight away.
The first step is therefore to obtain precise information from the doctoral body about the formal requirements for the application – and to submit all the documents in one go. If you apply by e-mail, this means: Ideally, your complete application documents are attached in a PDF file. If there are size limits for file attachments that are exceeded, your documents must be divided into meaningful individual files. This can be, for example, outsourcing the often quite extensive exposé to a separate file. It is absolutely necessary to avoid sending your documents in several separate e-mails.
Which Documents are Required?
Cover letter, curriculum vitae, and references are standards. In addition, a letter of motivation and references, as well as a summary of your thesis, may be required. In most cases, however, the synopsis of the dissertation project is the central element when applying for a doctoral position. Unless you are applying for a specified doctoral project, the scope of which has already been determined. Such doctoral projects are not uncommon, especially in the natural sciences.
The Standards: Cover Letter, CV, and References
Roughly the same rules apply to the cover letter as to applications in business: You declare your interest in the position and explain what added value the doctoral provider would have from you as a doctoral student. When it comes to specific job advertisements, the main thing is to establish a connection between the job profile and your qualifications and experience. You have to explain convincingly why you should get the job. Standardized cover letters rarely work. You should tailor each cover letter specifically to the position.
If possible, avoid anonymous salutations with “Dear Sir or Madam”, but research who your contact person is.
The curriculum vitae is usually required in tabular form. List all relevant stations in your career to date in a clear and concise manner. Which data is relevant also depends in part on the desired doctoral position. In business, different experiences are weighted more than in graduate schools and colleges. More on this in the Differences in the application section. As a rule, your school career before the highest school-leaving certificate is not relevant.
Information about your studies, awards, and scholarships received, professional experience and internships as well as previous publications are important. Overall, there should be a common thread running through your CV. Ideally, your CV should prove that you meet the requirements specified in the respective doctoral degree regulations, such as a first-class examination or initial research experience on the subject. Therefore, compare it with the formal requirements.
Only attach certificates for the qualifications mentioned in the CV.
Additional Documents: References and Letter of Motivation
In some advertisements, you are asked to enclose a letter of recommendation or an expert opinion from a lecturer with the letter of application. Good referees are the supervisors of your thesis. However, references from other professors whose focus corresponds to that of the desired doctoral position can also be useful.
Letters of motivation often play an important role, especially in applications for doctoral positions at graduate schools. They are sometimes also required for doctoral positions in business and university doctoral programs. This is about explicitly emphasizing what drives you, where your research interests lie and why you want to do a doctorate in this project.
The letter of motivation gives you the opportunity to sharpen your profile by going into the qualifications mentioned in more detail than in the cover letter or CV. It also offers you the opportunity to give your application a personal touch and – if necessary – to explain any breaks in your CV. You can find specific tips in the academics guide “The letter of motivation when applying to a graduate school”
Differences in Applying to Colleges, Graduate Programs, and Companies
As a general rule, practical experience is given much more importance in business applications than in the university sector. In colleges and graduate schools, grades and your previous academic achievements are of great importance. You should take this into account when preparing your documents. For decision-makers in companies, technically relevant part-time jobs during your studies can be more important than an honors exam or an extensive list of publications. Therefore, when applying to business, you can do without going into more detail when listing academic achievements and successes. This is primarily about results and the practical use of your work.
For applications in the university sector, however, you should describe your previous academic achievements in detail. In any case, this includes the specification of grades and a list of all publications. Special awards, such as prizes for smaller research projects or outstanding academic achievements, should also be mentioned. In the case of cited works, such as the master’s thesis, a brief outline of the content can be useful. Teaching experience can also be an important factor here, but it hardly plays a role in graduate schools and companies.
At graduate schools and colleges, on the other hand, the topic of the dissertation itself can be a decisive factor in the success of your application. This must fit the program of the respective institution. In view of the funding, a high level of motivation and perseverance is important for graduate schools. As a rule, they attach importance to the fact that doctoral candidates also personally fit well into existing research groups and are actively involved there. Therefore, great importance is often attached to the letter of motivation.
In the End
Have trouble creating a strong applicational suite for yourself? In that case, you can always entrust this task to professionals at a research proposal writing service. They will work with your documents and create an impressive applicational suite for you.
Retiring in Australia: 7 Inexpensive Places With Great Lifestyles
Australia is a wonderful place for anyone seeking a great fantastic lifestyle. For retirees, it offers some incredible – and cheap – options. Whether you’re looking to get closer to nature or stay connected with a community of people, the country has something for everyone.
From the sunny tropics of Queensland to the lush green landscapes of Tasmania, Australia’s most affordable places also offer excellent standards of living for retirees. If you’re planning a seachange or treechange during your golden years, check out this list.
Why relocate for retirement
As many as two in five seniors lack confidence in their financial situation in retirement. Relocating could help, given the fact that moving to a more affordable location means you can save money, by freeing up equity in your existing property or paying less rent.
This can mean a better quality of life in retirement. You could travel more, have more money to spend on entertainment and leisure, or pursue hobbies you’ve always wanted to explore.
- Huon Valley, Tasmania
If you love a cool climate and greenery, the Huon Valley in Tasmania’s south could be an ideal destination for retirement. Huonville is just 30 minutes by car from Hobart, so you can easily access all the amenities of the city while enjoying the wineries and the closeby Wilderness World Heritage Area.
Most notably, it offers cheaper housing and a strong community feel. In addition to Huonville, the townships to consider in the area are Cygnet, Dover (on Esperance Bay), Franklin, Geeveston, Port Huon, and Glen Huon.
- Sunshine Coast, Queensland
Spanning around 60km and located just one hour from Brisbane, the Sunshine Coast is an inexpensive, sunny region. Unsurprisingly, the region is popular with retirees, as confirmed by the fact over one in four of its locals are aged 60 and over.
With its sunny weather and proximity to beautiful beaches and rainforests and national parks, this coastal zone has relatively cheaper property compared with the capital cities.
Additionally, rentals and retirement villages are plentiful. Retiring to the Sunshine Coast means you’ll be settling into a vibrant area with a relaxed community vibe and solid amenities.
- Victor Harbor, South Australia
Less than an hour’s drive from Adelaide, Victor Harbor puts you right on the stunning coastline of the Fleurieu Peninsula. Attractions including striking beaches, penguin colonies, Kangaroo Island, wineries, and lush farmland abound.
In addition, lower property prices, a mild climate, and good access to healthcare services make this idyllic coastal town well worth considering. Also, nearly 40% of its population are retirees. You’re likely to encounter a community of like-minded people drawn to this thriving town with around 16,000 in population.
- Esperance, Western Australia
The town of Esperance, Western Australia, offers pristine white sandy beaches, spectacular national parks, and very affordable housing. As such, it’s not surprising this town of just under 15,000 attracts a lot of retirees. As much as 37% of its population are aged 50 and over. You can expect to find a friendly community, fantastic options for road trips, and easy access to Perth with daily flights from the local airport.
- Port Stephens, News South Wales
Close to Sydney and Newcastle, Port Stephens offers stunning coastal views, amazing beaches, and spectacular sand dunes. Close by are also beautiful nature trails and national parks. Other popular activities and attractions include dolphin and whale watching and dining out at the numerous eateries.
Fresh seafood, avocados, stone fruit, figs, and macadamias are some of the fresh local produce that’s readily available. Given its relatively lower housing prices and laidback lifestyle, Port Stephens could be the right destination for your retirement years.
- Hobart, Tasmania
If you enjoy a colder climate, Hobart, Tasmania, offers a wonderful retirement destination. You’ll love its striking mountain views, easy access to nature and wildlife, and small-town vibe in a city package. Whether you’re exploring the city’s outdoor and farmers’ markets, cruising up the Derwent River, or sampling the local produce, Hobart offers plenty to discover and enjoy.
In addition, don’t overlook the city’s emerging arts scene and excellent selection of cafes and restaurants. Finally, its property is more affordable compared with other Australian capitals. Retirement villages are numerous as well.
- Echuca, Victoria
Echuca, Victoria, is situated right on the Murray River in northern Victoria. This town has a rich history thanks to its prominent role as a major port in the 19th-century river trade.
Echuca, along with its twin town Moama (across the river in New South Wales), offers a strong community spirit that feels inclusive and welcoming.
Retiring to Echuca means you’ll enjoy a strong social network with its clubs, associations, and local activities. Last but not least, good healthcare facilities, dining options at reasonable prices, and inexpensive real estate are also why this charming town should be on your shortlist.
Australia offers a diverse range of options for retirees. These cities and towns tend to have lower median property prices. They can be more affordable, allowing you to free up funds and live an excellent lifestyle.
A lot of them offer good healthcare services, amenities, and great weather throughout the year. Leisure and entertainment activities and a strong local community are some of the other features of these cost-effective destinations. Whether you’re looking for an urban lifestyle or a quieter area on the coast, you’re likely to find a destination that ticks all the boxes for you.
Jacqui Coombe has been a prolific reader since childhood, and now channels her love of the written word into writing content on a range of topics from business, marketing and finance to travel and lifestyle.
Here’s how to achieve a good quality sleep
We often hear that sleep is now a luxury. What does it imply? It states a very obvious fact that nowadays, a lot of people can’t afford a quality sleep and it is not only applicable to a certain groups or types of people. Inability to achieve the recommended numbers of sleep happens even to the most famous and prominent people in the world, even to those people who can buy the most expensive bed and bedroom accessories. Finding it hard to achieve a good nightly sleep is actually one of the cons of a modern society. The modern world and the technologically advanced environment where we live in now glorify busyness, long working hours and rising early as badge of honor. When in fact, they contribute harm to the overall health of human.
The distractions we get from the environment, such as mobile devices, loud sound from vehicles, and too hot or too cold temperatures due to global warming are also factors for not getting enough sleep. These are only some of the many reasons that keep people awake until the wee hours of the morning, thus losing the chance for a rejuvenated sleep.
We have to understand that under sleeping means underperformance. If you don’t wake up feeling refreshed and light in the morning, you can’t perform at your best. Sleep is indeed integral for our overall well-being and inadequate sleep can negatively affect our physical, mental, and even emotional capacity. Here are some effective tips to achieve a better sleep each night:
Avoid alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine before bedtime.
If you can’t avoid drinking alcohol, do it at least 4 hours before your target bedtime. Contrary to what many people believe, alcohol may help to easily fall asleep but it has a negative effect on the quality of sleep or rest.
Food or drink that contains caffeine like coffee, tea and chocolates should be avoided for about four to six hours before bedtime. Caffeine takes up to 6 hours to be metabolized by the body so if you really need some fix at night, choose decaf drinks or food.
Even nicotine should be avoided too, if you want to sleep soundly. Nicotine as stimulant like caffeine, disrupts sleep. For people with high sensitivity, it is better to have their last nicotine or caffeine fix at noon to avoid trouble sleeping.
Eat smarter at dinner.
Dinner is the best time to enjoy quiet moments and conclude the day, but this peaceful moment sometimes causes us to over eat, thus affecting the quality of our sleep. Avoid having trouble sleeping at night by taking things slowly and eating healthy at dinner time. Also, be mindful of the type, kind and amount of food that you eat during dinner because they play a big role in having a quality sleep. Eat a nutritionally balanced meal which mostly includes fruits, veggies, sea foods, and poultry. These foods help your digestive system to work efficiently so you could avoid sleep interruptions and insomnia triggers. What to avoid at dinner time? Processed carbohydrates and high sugary foods.
Prepare a bedroom that’s conducive to sleep.
The bedroom, your own enclave is your personal space to relax, reflect and rejuvenate after a hard day’s work. Sleep experts suggest investing on good pillows and mattress. Choosing an adjustable bed with zero gravity can also help you sleep more comfortably as it perfectly targets any sleeping style. This type of mattress has luxury features to help your body prepare for a sound and restful sleep. Also, make sure to get rid of any distraction such as TV and devices such as mobile phone and laptops and keep your sanctuary neat, cool, dark, and noise-free before sleeping to make sure you can easily fall asleep and wake up the next day more relaxed and has a better disposition.
Leather Belts 101: A Look At The Materials You Can Choose
There are a lot of different materials you can choose from when making a leather belt. This blog post will look at the most popular options and what makes them unique. Whether you’re looking for durability, style, or both, there’s a material out there that will fit your needs! So, without further ado, here’s a list of materials you can use for leather belts.
Alligator belts are an excellent choice for those looking for something long-lasting and durable. Alligator skin is much tougher than cowhide, making it an ideal choice for anyone who wants a belt that will stand up to regular wear and tear.
Alligator belts also have a distinctive look that can add a touch of luxury to any outfit. However, it’s important to note that alligator skin is a natural material so each belt will be unique in color and texture. Those looking for a genuine, one-of-a-kind belt may want to consider an alligator belt.
Calfskin leather is an excellent material for a leather belt because it’s strong and durable but also soft and supple. Choosing a material that will hold up to wear and tear but also be comfortable is essential, and calfskin hits that sweet spot. It’s also a material that ages well, so your belt will only look better with time. Calfskin is an excellent option if you’re looking for a leather belt that will last you for years.
If you need further information, you can click here to learn more.
Crocodile Leather Belts
One of the great things about crocodile leather is that it looks fantastic. It has a unique grain pattern and a bit of natural “blush” to it, making it stand out. It’s also strong and durable, so you know your belt will last. Of course, all that beauty comes at a price. Crocodile leather is one of the more expensive options, but it’s definitely worth the investment. If you’re looking for a belt that will make a statement, the crocodile is the way to go.
Pebble Milled Leather
Pebble-milled leather is an excellent choice for a belt because it’s solid and durable. It’s also got a nice, natural look that can be dressed up or down. And pebble-milled leather belts are usually pretty affordable. Pebble-milled leather is an excellent option if you’re looking for a belt that will last a long time and look good.
Full Grain Leather
One of the most common choices for leather belts is full-grain leather. This type of leather is made from the top layer of the hide, which means it’s more durable and has a higher quality than other types of leather. Full-grain leather will also develop a patina over time, giving it a unique look that only improves with age. It’s the way to go if you’re looking for a belt that will last you for years.
One of the more unique options out there is a shark. You might think that shark sounds like a tough material, and you’d be right – it is. Shark leather is one of the strongest options, making it perfect for people looking for a belt that will last a long time. Another plus side to shark leather is that it’s also pretty flexible, so it’s comfortable to wear. And it looks pretty cool too. So, if you’re looking for a stylish and durable belt, shark leather is worth checking out.
One of the popular options for leather belt materials is ostrich leather. Ostrich leather is made from the skin of an ostrich, and it’s prized for its durability and unique appearance. The skin is covered in small bumps, which give the belt a textured look. Additionally, ostrich leather is often used in high-end belts because it’s one of the most durable types of leather.
Water buffalo is an excellent material for a leather belt. It’s strong and durable, yet still soft and pliable. It’s also a bit cheaper than other materials, like cowhide. Water buffalo is a great option to consider if you’re just starting. Just make sure you buy from a reputable source, as there are a lot of counterfeit belts out there made from lower-quality materials. Once you’ve worn a good quality water buffalo belt for a while, you’ll be able to tell the difference!
Leather Belts Materials: In Closing
Ultimately, what material you choose for your leather belt is up to you. We hope this article has helped give you a better understanding of the different types of materials available and how they compare in terms of quality and durability.
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